Rhonda Hunter using Our 6 Writing Friends (2nd Edition) in her 3rd grade classroom


Support for the Traits



“Using the language of the traits, beginning in kindergarten (and building on each trait throughout the next five years), gave students the opportunity to ‘talk’ about writing. This talk was extremely important and eventually became part of their writing vocabulary, just like hypothesis and data were important words to a science experiment.”



Jarmer, D. Kozal, J., Nelson, S., & Salsberry T. (2000). Northwest Regional Education Laboratory




“I believe it is important not only to share a common vision for lifelong learning and literacy; but a common vocabulary for how we talk about such issues.”


Dr. Beverly Ann Chinn, NCTE President, 1995-1996 University of Montana Department of English


"Now with Our Six Writing Friends we can share common visuals for this vocabulary to create a common “visual language” for writing as well." LaRae Kendrick, M. Ed., Familiar Visuals Teaching Aids & Training



6 Traits and Visual Imagery Research  



Experimental Study on the Impact of the 6 1 Trait® Writing Model on Student Achievement in Writing
By Michael Kozlow and Peter Bellamy

This report presents the results of a study that examined the efficacy of professional development for teachers using the 6 1 Trait Writing model with respect to improving student writing skills. To achieve this purpose, a randomized experimental study was conducted in 2003–2004 in grades 4 to 6 to determine the extent to which a two-day workshop on the 6 1 Trait Writing model affected teacher practices and student achievement in writing. The study examined fidelity of implementation through a teacher survey on classroom practices to determine the extent to which teachers implemented the desired strategies and to describe differences between classroom practices of teachers in the treatment group and those of teachers in the control group. Student achievement in writing was measured by having students write on assigned prompts to produce narrative, descriptive, or persuasive pieces of writing.





Research on Writing with the 6 1 Traits
By Peter C. Bellamy

The notion is widespread that children must learn to read before they can write. However, Bissex (1980), Chomsky (1971) and Graves (1983) found that young children begin writing as or even before they learn to read, because they have a need to communicate ideas and concepts that have been discovered by experience rather than in books. And this communication serves not only to share thoughts, but also to help organize them into coherent categories.

Study Findings on the Integration of Writing Assessment & Instruction

Would it make a difference in analytic writing testing results to purposefully weave assessment strategies into the writing curriculum? In other words, can we document differences in writing performance between two groups of students–one group that was systematically taught how to use the six-trait analytic assessment scoring criteria as a tool for revision, while the other group participated in traditional writing process instruction without using an assessment component as a strategy for revision?

Six-Trait Writing Model Improves Scores at Jennie Wilson Elementary
Journal of School Improvement, Fall/Winter 2000, vol 1 issue 2
By Deb Jarmer, Maurine Kozol, Sheri Nelson, Trudy Salsberry

"Anecdotal data are supported by more systematic research studies like the one conducted in 1992-1993 in Portland, Oregon (NWREL, 1992-1993). Six fifth-grade classrooms were selected to study the effect of teaching the six analytic traits to students. The classrooms represented diverse student populations (rural/urban, native/non-native English speakers, and a range of ethnicities). Three of the classrooms received traditional instruction while the other three were taught the six-trait method. The results from pre and post tests revealed large differences in writing performance between the two groups. "
Source NWREL


Visual Imagery Research


 Dr. F. M. Dwyer


(with Lin, C.) 2004. Effect of Varied Animated Enhancement Strategies in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(2).



(with Williams, J.) 2004. The Relative Effectiveness of Varied Visual Testing Formats in Retrieving Information Related to Different Educational Objectives. International Journal of Instructional media, 31 (4).



(with Owens, R. ) 2004 The Effect of Varied Cueing Strategies in Complementing Animated Visual Imagery in Facilitating Achievement of Different learning Objectives. International Journal of Instructional Media, 32(3).



(with De Romero, L.) 2004. The Effect of Varied Rehearsal Strategies Used to Complement Visualized Instruction in Facilitating Achievement of Different learning Objectives. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(4).



(with Lin, H., Chen, T.) (2006, in press). Effects of Static Visuals and Computer-generated Animations in Facilitating Immediate and Delayed Achievement in the EFL Classroom. Foreign Language Annals.


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